Genes Analyzed in the Genecept Assay®

The Genecept Assay® includes 18 well-characterized, well-annotated genes, extensively supported in peer-reviewed publications to affect treatment for psychiatric conditions. It includes pharmacodynamic genes, which indicate the effect a drug has on the body and can inform drug candidate selection. It also includes pharmacokinetic genes, which indicate the effect the body has on the drug via metabolism and can inform drug dosage.

The Genecept Assay® test at a Glance

This table is for information purposes only. Full lab results include reference to published literature.

Pharmacodynamic

GenePhysiological RoleImpact of MutationTreatment Impact
Serotonin Transporter
(SLC6A4)
Protein responsible for reuptake of serotonin from the synapseInhibition of this protein by SSRIs,
which may lead to increased risk for non-response/side effects
Use caution with SSRIs; SNRIs or non-SSRI antidepressants may be used if clinically indicated
Calcium Channel
(CACNA1C)
A subunit of the calcium channel which mediates excitatory signalingAssociated with conditions characterized
by mood instability/lability
Atypical antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and/or
omega-3 fatty acids, which may help to reduce excitatory signaling, may be used if clinically indicated
Sodium Channel
(ANK3)
Protein that plays a role in sodium channel function and regulation of excitatory signalingAssociated with conditions characterized
by mood instability/lability
Mood stabilizers and/or omega-3 fatty acids, which may help to reduce excitatory signaling, may be used if clinically indicated
Serotonin Receptor 2C
(5HT2C)
Receptor involved in regulation of satietyBlocked by atypical antipsychotics,
resulting in metabolic side effects
Use caution with atypical antipsychotics; metformin, lorcaserin or other anti-obesity interventions may be used if clinically indicated
Melanocortin 4 Receptor
(MC4R)
Receptor that plays a role in the control of food intakeIncreased risk for weight gain and higher BMI, which is exacerbated by atypical antipsychoticsUse caution with atypical antipsychotics; metformin, lorcaserin or other anti-obesity interventions may be used if clinically indicated
Dopamine 2 Receptor
(DRD2)
Receptor affected by dopamine in the brainBlocked by antipsychotic medications and is associated with risk for non-response/side effects. Associated with increased risk of opioid abuseUse caution with antipsychotics and opioids
Catechol-O-Methyltransferase
(COMT)
Enzyme primarily responsible for the degradation of dopamine in the frontal lobes of the brainAltered dopamine states can have emotional/behavioral effects and impact response to dopaminergic agentsDopaminergic stimulants, COMT inhibitors, and/or TMS may be used if clinically indicated for Val/Val patients

Use caution with dopaminergic stimulants in
Met/Met patients. Atypical antipsychotics may be used for psychotic related disorders if clinically indicated
Alpha-2A Adrenergic Receptor
(ADRA2A)
Receptor involved in neurotransmitter releaseAssociated with improved response to stimulant agentsStimulant agents may be used if clinically indicated
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase
(MTHFR)
- A1298C
- C677T
Predominant enzyme that converts folic acid/folate to its active form (methylfolate) needed for synthesis of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrineAssociated with varied activity and conversion of folic acid/folate to methylfolateSupplementation with L-methylfolate may be used if clinically indicated
Brain-derived
Neurotrophic Factor
(BDNF)
Important for proper neuronal development and neural plasticityImpaired BDNF secretion, which may be associated with altered SSRI response in CaucasiansIncreased physical activity/exercise may be beneficial for Met carriers if clinically indicated
μ-Opioid Receptor
(OPRM1)
Opioid receptor affected by natural and synthetic compoundsActivated by opioids and associated with varied analgesic response or dosages.Use caution with opioids; non-opioid analgesics may be used if clinically indicated; Naltrexone for alcohol use disorders may be used if clinically indicated
Glutamate Receptor
(GRIK1)
An excitatory neurotransmitter receptor in the brainAssociated with response to topiramate for alcohol abuseTopiramate may be used for treatment of alcohol abuse if clinically indicated

Pharmacokinetic

GenePhysiological RoleImpact of MutationTreatment Impact
CYP450
(CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4/5)
Enzymes that metabolize medications in the liverLarge number of psychiatric medications are metabolized by CYP450sDose adjustment (an increase or decrease) may be required

Psychiatrists and mental health professionals have long practiced personalized medicine, individualizing complex combinations of treatment for their patients. We are now on the brink of a new era where genomics such as through the Genecept Assay® can be added to the tools they use to select treatment options with the best chance of tolerability and efficacy.

Stephen M. Stahl, MD, PhDProfessor of Psychiatry University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Genomind Scientific Advisory Board Member